Learn firsthand the arts of spinning, weaving, knitting, rug-hooking
Heritage Weavers & Fiber Artists partnered with the Historic Johnson Farm to transform an original boarding house into a fiber arts center that encourages a knowledge and appreciation of fiber craft. As school children and the public tour the farm, they can see and experience hands-on learning in the fiber arts, including weaving, rug hooking, bobbin lace, spinning, and knitting. Hosting an annual Fiber Art Expo, the group invites visitors to meet the group’s instructors, watch demonstrations and sign up for classes.
During the first half of the 20th century, the Johnson family ran a working farm that also served as a summer tourist retreat. The handmade brick farmhouse was constructed in 1880,and a boarding house was added in 1923 to hold the overflow of guests. Visitors came to enjoy the healthy mountain hospitality and good food of Sallie Johnson, known as “Aunt Sallie” to friends and guests. Visitors helped with farm chores, but also enjoyed front porch rocking chairs, cool evenings, square dances and Sunday ice cream. In 1987, Aunt Sallie’s sons, Vernon and Leander Johnson, willed their farm and possessions to the Henderson County Board of Education as a lasting example of a mountain farm for the children of Henderson County.
Visitors to the Historic Johnson Farm today can walk the grounds, take a self-guided audio tour, visit with the farm animals, and enjoy the nature trails. Something that can be experienced anytime is the group’s dye garden. This lovely garden is full of native plants that spinners and weavers have used to dye fibrous materials.
The sprawling house that dominates the Monteith Farmstead was once the long-time home of a pair of sisters who lived there their entire lives. As adults, during a time when it was rare for women to live alone, the two sisters shared the responsibility of caring for the home place. Fiercely proud and loyal to their family heritage, they worked hard to preserve what had been left to them by their parents. Keeping the farmstead much as it had been when their parents were alive, the two siblings practiced traditions that today we celebrate as craftsmanship. The farmstead showcases the home arts of quilting, sewing, and canning during events throughout the year.
Edna and Edith Monteith were born during the first two decades of the 20th century. As adults, Edith managed the house and farm while Edna served for 45 years as the Dillsboro Postmaster. They tended their flower garden and made quilts and crafts to supplement their income. Today their home houses the Appalachian Women’s Museum, a site dedicated to sharing and celebrating women’s lives. For many women, life in the Southern Appalachians was hard with raising children on very little means, caring for families and making a living in an isolated region. No matter the circumstances, these women faced whatever obstacles came their way with determination, grit and grace. Some achieved prominence in the arts, government, education and social causes while others achieved success through raising productive children. Regardless of their status, it is stories of these ordinary women leading extraordinary lives that must be preserved and shared to inspire future generations.
The 100- year-old house has been undergoing restoration and repair and is open for special events. A series of programs, demonstrations, and hands-on activities focus on traditional home crafts, including a display in the Canning House Kitchen. The Farmstead and surrounding property has been developed as a public park with fishing and picnic areas, a greenway along the banks of Scott Creek, and other recreational facilities. The house and property are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
A private arboretum featuring native plants near Lake Toxaway, the Southern Highlands Reserve is a research center dedicated to sustaining the natural ecosystems of the Blue Ridge Mountains. We accomplish this mission through the preservation, cultivation and display of plants native to the region, and by advocating for their value through education, restoration and research. Located in Western North Carolina at an elevation of 4500 feet, the varied topography and forest types found on our 120 acres allow us to emulate many of the plant communities found in the higher reaches of the Southern Appalachians.
The varied terrain and high elevation makes for a moderate to strenuous hiking/walking experience. Please wear comfortable clothes and shoes, bring water bottle, camera and bug spray. We also invite our visitors to bring a sack lunch and enjoy lunch in the passive recreation areas around Chestnut lodge following a tour.
Reserve a tour
Staff offers two ways to see the Reserve April – October for the perfect outing for backyard gardeners, plant enthusiasts and professionals in the fields of horticulture, design and ecology. Visitors’ Days, led by a Garden Tour Docent, are held the first Tuesday of each month and are best suited for first-time guests to Southern High Reserve. Reservations are limited to 4 tickets
Cost per ticket is $15. Tours are also available for private groups up to 20 and cost $25/person with a minimum of $250 per group. Tours begin promptly at 10 a.m. and last about two hours.
Tour a small town with big personalities and welcoming climate
Tryon quickly grew as a resort town, bringing tourists to the area to enjoy the mountain views and good climate. Many artists, writers and crafters chose to stay – at least for a while – including the stage actor William Gillette, most famous for his portrayal of Sherlock Holmes, and F. Scott Fitzgerald. This mix of locals, artists and retirees continues today, creating a vibrant, active community. Many of the historic buildings on Tryon’s Trade Street were in place by 1900, including a general store, pharmacy and post office. Buildings like these have contributed to Tryon receiving the designation of historic district by the National Register of Historic Places.
In 1915 Miss Eleanor Vance and Miss Charlotte Yale, co-founders of Biltmore Estate Industries, left Asheville and resettled in Tryon where they purchased a cottage and soon were training young boys and girls to handcraft finely-designed and beautifully-crafted toys. Vance and Yale’s little non-profit business, motivated by a desire to do good and to train young people in rewarding artist-work, eventually became the famous Tryon Toy Makers and Wood Carvers.
In 1928 two boys working for Tryon Toy Makers built a gigantic version of the popular little toy horse for a parade held in conjunction with the spring Tryon Horse Show, to advertise and celebrate Tryon Toy Makers. Their creation was so big that overhead wires along Trade Street had to be lifted out of the way in order for the Tryon Horse to participate in the procession. The toy makers also made miniature wheeled horse souvenirs to sell at the horse show. The giant horse was disassembled after the parade, stored in the basement at Hillcote, and brought out in subsequent years for the horse show parade. Eventually the Tryon Toy Makers donated it to the Tryon Riding and Hunt Club, eventually naming him “Morris” and creating a permanent position in the center of Tryon where he can be visited any time. See the photo on this page. Listen to this short Living Traditions Moments presentation about the Tryon Toy Makers.
Tryon Wine Country
In the late 1800s and early 1900s, Tryon was well known for its table and wine grapes. Due to prohibition, family businesses related to wine dried up over time. Beginning in the early 1990s, this interesting part of Tryon’s history was revived–the planting of grapes for winemaking. About a dozen vineyards now lie about 10 miles to the east in the Tryon foothills. This area, with its gentle, rolling hills and clay-loam soils, has proven to be an excellent location for vinifera grapes. Five wineries welcome visitors for tasting, tours and beautiful mountain views.
Visitors stroll down Trade Street and enjoy the shops and restaurants. They may catch a movie at the tiny Tryon Theater or a performance at the Tryon Fine Arts Center. Scenic drives include a drive through the architecturally rich neighborhoods of Gillette Woods and Godshaw Hill; through the horse estates on Hunting Country Road; or along the Pacolet River Scenic Byway (Hwy 176). Or picnic at Harmon Field and peruse the nearby antique stores.
March: Super Saturday– Also known as the Children’s Theater Festival, this is a one-day festival of “lively arts” for children. Eight to ten different performances encompassing theater, music, storytelling, mime, dance, puppetry and more are brought to Tryon on a Saturday in late March
May:Block House Steeple Chase– Horses and races, tailgate picnics and crazy hat contests, friendly people and a whole lot of fun! Run by the Tryon Riding & Hunt Club.
Festival features competition cookers, two music stages, the Foothills Craft Fair and children’s rides. Admission includes parking. Held the second Friday and Saturday in June each year. Run by the Carolina Foothills Chamber of Commerce.
Summer – June through September
Summer Tracks at Rogers Park – Named for the RR tracks running through the park, enjoy this series of FREE Friday night summer concerts. Schedule available at the Tryon Visitors Center, Polk County Travel & Tourism Office, and online.
Typically held in early November, the Annual Tryon Beer Fest runs from noon until 6pm in the Tryon Depot Plaza. Tickets are sold in advance (online and at local retailers) and at the gate (cash only). Festival only (“Designated Driver”) tickets are also available at the gate (cash only).Admission includes unlimited beer and wine samples.
An array of craft beers are available, along with an oyster roast, authentic German food, non-alcoholic beverages and water. Live Bavarian music entertains during the day, followed by a live rock band later in the afternoon. This is a rain or shine event, under the sun or under a heated tent, depending on the weather.
December:Tryon Christmas Stroll
Tryon Downtown Development Association members serve refreshments at their businesses. Santa listens to children’s wish lists. Carolers make joyful noises. Friday night early in December – Small town Christmas at its charming best!
Before 1856, when no more than 10 families lived on what was then known as Pleasant Hill, education was important to the parents who founded an academy to educate their children.
The French Broad Baptist Institute, as it was known, eventually evolved into Mars Hill College. When the village of Mars Hill was incorporated in 1893, the corporate limits were set at 900 yards in all directions from the northwest corner of the first college building. The name Mars Hill is said to have been inspired by a Biblical passage, Acts 17:22, which says, “Then Paul stood in the midst of Mars’ hill and said, ‘Ye men of Athens, I perceive that in all things ye are too superstitious.’”
As the college grew, so did the town. A general store was built, a doctor’s office established, and boarding houses opened for college students. The year 1913 was a boom year for the growing community. Several new buildings were erected, including two stores, a bank building, general store, and a drug store. Many of the homes and the businesses built during this time can be seen in Mars Hill today.
Mars Hill University
Mars Hill University served the academic needs of a growing community and became one of the premiere two-year private colleges in the nation. In 1962, it reached four-year status, and in 2013, the institution changed its name to Mars Hill University to reflect the institution’s expansion, both in terms of enrollment and variety of offerings. The school identifies itself closely with the history and culture of this area and the wide Southern Appalachian area.
Music at Mars Hill
The college and the town itself are inextricably linked to the traditional music of Appalachia. Musician, folklorist, and festival organizer Bascom Lamar Lunsford, a Mars Hill native, dedicated his life to collecting and promoting the music of the Southern Appalachians. Through his work he became known as “Minstrel of the Appalachians.”
In 1927 Lunsford organized the Mountain Dance and Folk Festival in Asheville, which has been in existence ever since. He organized many other festivals, performed extensively, and composed songs, including the famous “Mountain Dew.”
The Rural Heritage Museum is on the campus of Mars Hill University. Its exhibits and programming focus on educating students and visitors to the lifeways of the Southern Appalachians. Open year-round, 11 am to 5 pm, except Mondays, and Thanksgiving, Christmas and New Year’s days.
The Liston Ramsey Center for Regional Studies is in the Renfro Library on the campus. The extensive collection of photographs, manuscripts, sound recordings, and artifacts document aspects of mountain life and culture, including an exhibit of Cherokee artifacts, some of which date back to 10,000 BC. Bascom Lamar Lunsford’s instruments are on display along with an extensive scrapbook of his writings and manuscripts to rival the one in the Library of Congress.
Whether presenting Broadway musicals or world-premiere original works, SART offers the highest quality professional productions, with one play each season which has a special emphasis on the rich culture and heritage of the people of Appalachia.
Blackberry Festival—Held annually in August, celebrating some of the finest blackberries grown anywhere. Bascom Lamar Lunsford Festival—Held the first Saturday in October, in conjunction with the Heritage Festival. Both festivals are on the campus of Mars Hill University, and both celebrate the traditional music, crafts, and cuisine of the region.
Perched on the crest of the Blue Ridge atop the Eastern Continental Divide, the Orchard at Altapass occupies a unique spot in both America’s landscape and history. The Orchard has been a vital travel route since the earliest settlers began exploring these mountains. Buffalo and elk traversed here, followed by the Cherokee and eventually European settlers.
Early settlers defied British attempts to make peace with the Indians by disallowing settlement to the west of the mountains. Their resentment of British rule culminated when they formed the Overmountain Men during the Revolutionary War, marching to King’s Mountain and handing the British a stinging defeat recognized as a turning point of the conflict.
America’s industrialization came to the area in the 1890s. The Orchard’s location on the lowest pass through the Blue Ridge in the surrounding 100 miles ensured that the nation’s railroad barons would find it.
In 1908 the Clinchfield Railroad opened, complete with an engineering marvel: the Clinchfield loops, consisting of 18 tunnels in 13 miles of track built beside and below the present-day Orchard.
The arrival of the Blue Ridge Parkway in the 1930s was yet another key chapter in the Orchard’s history dictated by geography. Today the Orchard is one of the most popular stops along the Parkway.
In 1995, Bill Carson and his family purchased the Orchard and now operates it today as a non-profit dedicated to preserving local history and lore, heritage apple varieties, and traditional music, and storytelling.
To help preserve local culture the Orchard offers free live music Wednesday through Sunday in May through September, and weekends in October.
Take part in the ever-popular Storytelling Hayride, a 45-minute journey through time, which begins on the old path of the Revolutionary War soldiers called the Overmountain Men. The hayride continues through the orchard, past old and young trees, with spectacular scenery for the entire route. Hayrides are offered every Saturday and Sunday.
In addition to hayrides, the Orchard offers guided storytelling walks and guided nature walks on beautiful trails.
The store and music venue have been completely remodeled and there are now dedicated areas for: kids’ activities, history, butterflies, honey bees, and books. All proceeds from the store help to support the mission of the Altapass Foundation.
Location and Operating Hours
The Orchard is located on the Blue Ridge Parkway at milepost 328.3, outside the town of Spruce Pine, NC. The Orchard is open 10 AM to 5 PM every day of the week except Tuesdays from May to October. The Orchard is open everyday of the week during the month of October.
Established in 1789, the town of Rockford served as the county seat of Surry County until is was encompassed into present day Yadkin County. As an early seat of government Rockford developed as an earl seat of commercial activity in the area. Hotels, taverns, and retail stores along with craftsmen including a blacksmith and tinsmith as well as industry including a forge and tannery flourished in the town.
A notable resident of the town during the 19th century was Judge Richmond Pearson, who established a law school just across the Yadkin River (Richmond Hill Law School). Pearson served as Chief Justice of the North Carolina Supreme Court from 1858 until his death in 1878.
After a period of decline Rockord saw success and a resurgence in the coming of the railroad in 1890 and through the early 1900’s. Rockford became the chief carrier of passengers, freight, and mail for Northwestern North Carolina Railroad and as a result resurfaced as a commercial center. During this time the village boasted three general stores and tobacco factory.
Modern Rockford still maintains much of its early character as several buildings of architectural significance still stand in town. These include, the Rockford Inn, the Rockford Methodist Church, the Mark York Tavern, the Rockford Post Office, the Dudley Glass Store – Davenport Galley, and the Rockford Masonic Lodge.
Also of interest is the Rockford General Store which dates back to 1890 and is included on the National Register of Historic Places! Creaky wooden floors, old fashioned candy jars, hoop cheese, glass bottle drinks including Nehi and Crush are just a few old timey items you will discover at the Rockford General Store.
In September the town hosts the Rockford Reunion, (this year’s event is on Sept. 8th) at the Masonic Lodge from 10 AM to 4 PM. The day’s activities will include traditional music, a BBQ lunch, sharing of family and local history, and dedication of the new Whitaker/York marker and hand rails donated by Bob and Betty Whittaker and several other Whitaker and York families. Registration fee for the day is $10.00 which includes lunch.
Each year the town hosts the annual Candlelight Christmas in Rockford event at the Rockford Methodist Church. Be sure to stop by the Dudley Glass Store and Davenport Gallery to do some Christmas shopping before the event!
Waynesville is the largest city west of Asheville. It is Haywood County’s oldest town and the Haywood County seat, framed by mountain vistas, vast national forest lands and clear, rushing streams. It is also where team square dancing originated in the 1930s.
The Town of Waynesville was founded in 1809 by Colonel Robert Love, a Revolutionary War soldier. He donated land for the courthouse, jail and public square, and named the town after his commander in the war, General “Mad” Anthony Wayne. The Town of Waynesville was incorporated in 1871.
For many years visitors have traveled to Waynesville to enjoy the cool clean air, clean water, outstanding scenery and an opportunity to escape the crowded cities.
Main Street’s tree lined brick sidewalks offer pedestrian access to fine shops, galleries, cafés and restaurants. Historic buildings, relaxing benches, public art, and welcoming folks make Waynesville an enjoyable place to live and visit.
Parks, Museums and Arts Centers
Founded in 1977, The Museum of North Carolina Handicrafts at the Shelton House is a repository and cultural exhibit preserving and displaying traditional crafts by some of the states’ most renowned artisans. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the Charleston style farmhouse was built in 1875 for Stephen Jehu Shelton, a Civil War veteran and Haywood County sheriff. Exhibits include period furnishings and antiques, folk art, and collections of pottery, wood carving, basketry, metalwork, weaving, quilting, marquetry and other fine crafts. Open May-October.
The award-winning Haywood Arts Regional Theater features a full schedule of performances. Widely known as one of the finest community theaters in the southeast, the theater presents shows on the main stage at the Shelton House, April through December, and in the Feichter Studio, January through April.
Ten to twelve rotating artists’ exhibits are shown annually at the Haywood County Arts Council’s Gallery 86, a creative showcase on Main Street in the historic downtown. Special music and art events are held there throughout the year.
The town of Waynesville has many parks and greenways that afford visitors and residents alike the opportunity to enjoy the outdoors and beatuiful scenery of the area.
Festivals and Events
On the first Friday each month between May and December, Downtown Waynesville Galleries remain open until 9 pm for “Art After Dark,” with demonstrations, artist receptions, and music.
Mountain Street Dances enliven downtown Waynesville on four summer Friday nights. Put on your clogging and square dancing shoes and enjoy an old-fashioned mountain hoe down at the historic County Courthouse! Live mountain music, demonstrations and instruction by local clogging teams.
In July, Waynesville goes international, hosting Folkmoot USA, the State International Festival of North Carolina. This two-week celebration of the world’s cultural heritage through folk music and dance beings with a parade of nationns down Main Street featuring performances, a parade and workshops. Performers demonstrate their cultural heritage through colorful, authentic and original reproduction costumes, lively dance and traditional music.
On Labor Day Weekend the annual Smoky Mountain Folk Festival, held at Stuart Auditorium at nearby Lake Junaluska, offers two nights of the finest traditional music and dance of the Southern Appalachian Region.
The Church Street Art and Craft Show is held in October on Main Street in downtown. Now in its 30th year, this event showcases the area’s arts, craft and music heritage.
Tailgate Farmers Markets
The Waynesville Farmers Market is open May through October, held on Wednesday and Saturday mornings on Legion Drive, just off Main Street. Vendors offer fresh fruit, vegetables, herbs and flowers grown in Haywood County.
Waynesville is easily accessed from Interstate 40/US 74 on the north, and US 23/74 from the south. Parkway travelers can take the Waynesville exit at Balsam Gap.
The Francis Grist Mill, located just outside of Waynesville, NC on Highway 276 was built in 1887. Constructed by William Francis to serve the Francis Cove Community, the mill commonly produced ground wheat, corn and grits for local residents.
The water-powered mill stands beside a small creek that flows downhill. A mill pond, formed by damming the creek upstream and to the south of the mill, fed a partially elevated wooden flume that delivered water to turn the overshot waterwheel.
The mill also served as a central meeting place for the Francis Cove Community. Family, friends and neighbors regularly met at the mill to catch up on news and events.
Throughout the mill’s history the infrastructure has included a yellow popular mill wheel which was later replaced by a steel wheel from Hanover, Pennsylvania.
Members of the Francis family continued to operate the mill until 1976. As a result of inactivity, the mill fell into disrepair until it was restored between 2004 and 2008.
Rehabilitation of the mill included replacement of the deteriorated east sill and siding on the east elevation, repair of the mill machinery, replacement of the waterwheel, an accurate reconstruction of the flume, and a modern rebuilding of the dam. Following the restoration, the mill began grinding grain again in April 2008.
In 2011, the Blue Ridge National Heritage awarded the Bethel Rural Community Organization a grant to support the nomination of the Mill to the National Register of Historic Places.
2013 saw the success of many years of efforts as the Francis Mill added to the National Register of Hisotric Places.
Preserving the legacy and crafts of Clay County’s long history
As its name would suggest, the Old Jail Museum is located in Clay County’s old jail in a building that sits high on a hill on the way to Hayesville’s town square. Built with concrete and cement bricks made on location, the building was a modern and efficiently functioning structure at the time of its construction in 1912. Today, the brick structure houses the Old Jail Museum and the Clay County Historical and Arts Council.
Originally, the sheriff and his family occupied the west end of the building, with two bedrooms above and a parlor and bedroom below. The kitchen and dining room were located in the space now utilized as an art exhibition area on the first floor. The building originally had no electricity, light being provided by kerosene lamps.
Piquing most visitors’ interest are the old jail cells, still intact, on the second floor. Large iron bars surround the two small cells, outfitted as they once were, with toilet, sink, and bunk. Visiting is enough to keep on one the straight and narrow.
Visitors will enjoy the many pictures of life as it was in the old days, school house artifacts, a collection of farm equipment and Indian artifacts from a local excavation.
The museum also includes rare collections of Cherokee baskets, quilts, masks, and other carvings, and an exquisite life-size model of a Cherokee basketweaver.
Attached to the museum is the actual office of Dr. Paul Killian, a beloved turn of the century doctor in Clay County. The office contains his desk, medical implements, log books, saddle bags, and other items used by the doctor.
The museum is also next door to the Cherokee Homestead Exhibit. Visit the Homestead to learn about their ancient history and the Cherokee way of life in this reconstructed 17th – 18th century village homestead.
For hours and news of other current events, visit the website.
Nestled in the High Country in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Western North Carolina is the charmingly rustic small town of Lansing, a prime travel destination in Ashe County.
From Villages and Trading Centers
Like numerous villages throughout Ashe County, Lansing began as a small trading center for the local agrarian population. It is not known where the name Lansing originated, but the name was used in the establishment of a post office on August 24, 1882. Lansing was one of the county’s many modestly-sized rural communities in 1896.
According to Branson’s North Carolina Business Directory, its population was 40, Harrison Perkins’ General Store was the only business, along with the original Lansing School, built in 1889.
Growth with the Railroad
The Virginia-Carolina Railroad (later owned by Norfolk & Western) was constructed through Ashe County in 1914 to 1916 and had a significant impact on the growth of Lansing. With the construction of the railroad, industries based on the export of the county’s natural resources sprang up. Small-scale mining of iron ore was conducted in the Lansing area and the shipment of the ore from the Lansing Depot contributed to the town’s early growth.
The timber industry was even more important to the economy of Lansing and the county in general. Lumber and pulpwood, and probably tan bark, were all shipped from Lansing to processing plants that were located across Southwest Virginia and beyond. These products were the primary impetus for the construction of the railroad into Ashe County and created an economic boom for much of the 1910s and 1920’s culminating in the town’s charter on May 26, 1928.
Discover Modern Lansing
While industries have come and gone, the beauty of the mountains and surrounding natural heritage remains the same for the town and people of Lansing. No matter what the season, Lansing offers unforgettable landscape and scenery, year-round festivals and incredible outdoor recreation opportunities.
The quaint downtown offers a variety of interesting and unique shops filled with local arts and crafts, antiques and household goods. Our shopkeepers enjoy every opportunity to welcome you to the area, and direct you to any goods and services you may seek during your stay. Local eateries in town offer everything from old fashioned country cooking to hand tossed pizza.
Take a ride on the Blue Ridge Parkway, a mecca for recreational opportunities, a habitat for diverse species of flora and fauna, access to America’s cultural heritage, an icon of American progress and ingenuity, and a gateway to charming communities.
Lansing is about 20 minutes from Jefferson and West Jefferson, the seat of Ashe County, is only 45 minutes from Boone (NC) and is less than an hour from Abingdon (VA) or Mountain City (TN). You could get here from Charlotte or Winston-Salem in about 2-1/2 hours and just a few miles from the Virginia Creeper Trail.
The Caldwell Heritage Museum opened in 1991 and is dedicated to preserving and presenting the history of Caldwell County, North Carolina,
primarily through about two dozen permanent exhibits and rotating special exhibits.
The museum’s space is being utilized for a chronological history of Caldwell County from pre-colonial days until the present, in a series of exhibits. Among the articles are Native American spears and arrow points, early maps, grants, and deeds. There is also information and pictures about the formation of Caldwell County, as well as the establishment of the town of Lenoir as the county seat and its development into a railroad terminus and furniture manufacturing center. The museum also has several special interest collections: medical, music, military, and cameras. Several special collections of loaned items are featured for short periods of time each year.
The purpose of the Caldwell Heritage Museum is to preserve the history of Caldwell County for future generations. The Museum is supported by private donations and is governed by a Board of Directors who are incorporated as the Caldwell Heritage Museum, Inc. Members of the board are elected by the Caldwell County Historical Society.
Hours of Operation
Tuesday through Friday : 10 am to 4:30 pm
Saturday : 9 am to noon
There is no admission charge, but donations for the operation of the Museum are appreciated.